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earthquake-resistant construction: the Spanish are prepared to withstand an earthquake houses?

Early Wednesday one earthquake of 6.2 degrees on the Richter scale devastated several towns in central Italy , causing far 267 deaths and hundreds of injuries and extensive property damage. This earthquake has not been an isolated case. In 2009, the town of L’Aquila suffered a similar magnitude quake that caused more than 300 deaths, 1,500 injured and 50,000 people lost their homes.

In Spain we still have a vivid memory of Lorca . Earthquake disaster kit on May 11, 2011, the Murcian town received a jolt of magnitude 5.1 that caused nine deaths and 324 wounded. 80% of homes were affected and many of them eventually demolished . The cost of property damage exceeded 450 million euros.


In addition, in February 2015, an earthquake measuring 5.2 on the Richter scale with its epicenter in the town of La Mancha Ossa de Montiel returned to sow panic in media Spain. Against this background, many Spaniards today asked a question: is my house prepares to hold an earthquake?

Probably not. According to the Ministry of Development and the National Institute of Statistics (INE) , in Spain there are more than 13 million households with more than 40 years old , more than half of the total. The vast majority of these homes rose without taking any anti – seismic measures. In addition, nearly two million property is in poor condition.

In fact, although the first rules of seismic data cosntrucción 1968 (PGS-1), it was a compendium of recommendations that were not binding except in the case of large public works. Until 1994 was not approved in Construction Standard NCSE-94 Sismoterrestre , Spain did not count with modern seismic regulations.

High risk areas

Currently it is in effect the NCSE-02 , which targets a number of design and construction rules that aim to equip buildings earthquake resistant properties chord with the intensity levels that can affect the area where they are located.

The legislation includes a seismic hazard map which, expressed in terms of basic seismic acceleration, defines the level of intensity of seismic shocks that can affect every area. Huelva, Malaga, Granada, Almeria, Murcia, Alicante and small areas of the Pyrenees are the areas of greatest risk . Only residential buildings located in these areas are required to comply with the standard.

For example, in areas where the application of the NCSE-02 is mandatory is prevented new buildings for housing or public use whose structure is of drywall, adobe or mud walls are made, as experience has demonstrated high vulnerability to earthquakes of medium and high magnitude.

In addition, strict compliance with the standard in buildings whose destruction by the earthquake is also obliged, can disrupt an essential service or lead to catastrophic effects, regardless of where they are located. This group includes hospitals, communications facilities, fire stations, police and armed forces or water networks, gas and fuel.

strict regulations … does not apply

According repeated the College of Architects of Madrid on several occasions , the current Spanish seismic regulations is “very strict” . They claim that “if built faithfully following the rules, the houses put up much more than expected because, when making calculations, we apply some high coefficients architects to withstand much more.”

However, the German engineer Lutz Hermanns , a researcher at the Center for Modeling in Mechanical Engineering (CEMIM), reported that in Spain has not been met anti -seismic regulations in recent constructions while participating in summer courses at the Universidad Internacional Menéndez Pelayo ( UIMP).

Is expected to Sismoterrestre Construction Standard NCSE-02 is replaced by the more comprehensive EC8, a European standard drafted by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN), which aims to unify the criteria throughout the continent.

Hermanns said that while countries such as Ireland and Germany have already adopted the Eurocode, Spain continues to be governed by its own rules and claims that “if you look at what has been built for five years and take the regulations in force realizes that many things are not met, and nothing happens.

Are they connected the earthquakes in Ecuador and Japan? part1

The proximity in time of the earthquake that struck the Japanese island of Kyushu on Friday, 15 April and caused more than 500 deaths in Ecuador the day after has worried many.

And that concern has certainly been fueled because the coincidence has led many media to report on other earthquakes that under different circumstances would not have reported.

An example is the earthquake of magnitude 5.8 on the Richter scale was felt near Tonga on Sunday 17 in the morning, when most of the world was just beginning to become aware of what happened in Ecuadorian lands.

And soon, with the help of social networks, many also ended up discovering that in previous days had trembled as far away as Burma, Indonesia and Vanuatu, earthquake kit list

Ecuador Earthquake

So, the questions are not waiting.

Are we are saying something all these quakes?

Is the temporal proximity of deadly earthquakes in Japan and Ecuador more than a coincidence ?

In the Ring of Fire

The answer in both cases is a categorical no . That is, there is no connection between earthquakes .

And all have in common is that Japan and Ecuador both took place in April and caused two fatalities.

“Japan and Ecuador are so separated from each other as possible be pregnant on this planet , ” says Roger Musson, a seismologist at the British Geological Survey.

“And her tectonic plates are different , ” he tells the BBC.

Indeed, both countries are located on the so – called “Ring of Fire”, but the Ecuador earthquake was caused by the subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South Amercan .

While the Kyushu earthquake which produced at least 42 dead- was produced by a surface fault located on a completely different plate: the Eurasian plate .

And that also made from the seismological point of view the two earthquakes were also completely different.

Thus, the temporal proximity between the two quake was completely accidental.

And statistics also indicate that the match was not even extraordinary .

16 per year

Indeed, according to the US Geological Survey (USGS, for its acronym in English), the data collected from 1900 to date show that there is , on average, 16 major earthquakes per year.

That necessarily means more than one month , although the number of earthquakes with magnitude 7.0 or more may vary significantly from the average.

In 2013, for example, there were 19 earthquakes with a magnitude of 7.0 or higher.

“And in 2013 passed twice we had two earthquakes of great magnitude with only one day apart in two very distant places , ” Musson tells the BBC.

“It seems strange, but if you go to a party and there are 22 others in place, the likelihood would find two birthdate share is 50%,” says seismologist.

“And the possibility that two major earthquakes occur on the same day is 30% , ” he adds.

Too much information?

However, as suggested by the USGS on its website, the way the information currently circulating can make many people jump to wrong conclusions.


Natural appearance and social status, countries in Southeast Asia

Natural appearance and social situation, countries in Southeast Asia, countries in Southeast Asia, ASEAN countries, the countries of Southeast Asia, the countries of ASEAN, the Southeast Asia, the ASEAN countries

Natural appearance and social status, countries in Southeast Asia

Jakarta Capital Indonesia

Click here: earthquake kit
Other countries also are in Southeast Asia are Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei, the Philippines, Thailand, Myanmar, Cambodia, Vietnam, and Laos. The countries located in Southeast Asia are then formed an organization called the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). ASEAN was established goals for cooperation among countries in Southeast Asia.
Together with the neighboring countries, Indonesia friendship and mutually beneficial cooperation. Adjacent to the Indonesian state called neighboring countries. Other neighboring countries are Australia, Papua New Guinea, and East Timor.
In the discussion this time we only describe natural features and social conditions in the countries belonging to ASEAN. Let us discuss these countries one by one.

1. Indonesia

a. Natural conditions
Indonesia is an archipelago of islands – large and small islands. Number of islands located in Indonesia is 13 667 islands. Magnitude islands include Sumatra, Java, Borneo, Sulawesi, and Papua island.
In the previous lesson in the fifth grade we have learned that the natural features that exist in Indonesia consists of a chain of mountains, mountains, seas, rivers and lakes. Indonesia’s highest mountain located in Papua, the Sudirman Mountains with the highest peak called Puncak Jaya, which reaches a height of 5,030 meters. Is the longest river Kapuas River (Kalimantan), while the largest lake is Lake Toba (North Sumatra).
b. Form of government
Indonesia is the country’s capital Jakarta, the country form the Republic and is headed by a president. The president is elected by the people. In running the government, the President is assisted by ministers chosen by the President. Indonesian currency is the Rupiah. Indonesia is the national anthem Indonesia Raya.
c. Economic activity
Indonesia is a country rich in natural resources. Therefore, the Indonesian nation’s economic activity covering various fields from the field of agriculture, industry, mining and tourism. Indonesia is one of the largest tea producing country in the world. In addition there
Similarly other plantation crops such as oil palm, rubber, coffee, wood, rattan and spices are also an export commodity that is taken into account.

Indonesia is also the oil-producing countries and other mining products such as coal, natural gas, tin, gold, iron and steel, aluminum, diamonds, silver and mining revenues. In the industrial field, Indonesia produces fabrics and apparel. Several Southeast Asian countries are also importing raw materials and foodstuffs from Indonesia. Tourism is one of the largest state revenues large enough for Indonesia, one of which is

tourist island of Bali.
2. Malaysia
a state of Nature
Malaysia Wilayah extensive approximately 330 434 km2 which consists of two parts, namely the region of West Malaysia and East Malaysia.
a. Regional West Malaysia is located on the peninsula which consists of eleven states, namely Kedah, Perak, Selangor, Negeri Sembilan, Penang, Pahang, Perlis, Kelantan, Malacca, Johor, and Trenggano. Highest mountain called Mount Tahan at 2,190 meters high.
b. East Malaysia is located in the north of Borneo which consists of two parts, namely the states of Sarawak and Sabah. Here too there is the highest mountain is Mount Kinabalu which reaches a height of 4,101 meters.
b. Form of government
The capital of Malaysia is Kuala Lumpur. The shape of the country’s government. Head of state is the king with the title of Yang di-Pertuan Agong is elected by the rulers of the state. Head of states is king. Malaysian currency is the Ringgit, and its National Anthem is My Country. Who run the government is the prime minister.
c. Economic activity
Malaysian nation’s economic activity, especially in the fields of agriculture, plantation, mining and industry. In the field of agriculture and plantations producing rubber, palm oil, pepper, tea, rice,
and copra. Mining produces iron ore, petroleum, bouksit, and tin ore. The tin ore to make Malaysia as the world’s largest producing country. In industry, Malaysia produce electronic goods.

3. Singapore

a. Natural conditions
Singapore’s total area of about 622 km2 which consists of the island – a small island. Singapore is a country with a strategic location because it is located at the intersection shipping lines of the countries in East Asia, West Asia, Africa, Europe, Australia, and America.

This situation is exploited by the Singapore government to build a port that provides transportation and warehouse. With good service, so many ships calling at the port of Singapore making Singapore as busiest port in Asia.

b. Form of government
The capital of Singapore is Singapore. The shape of the state of Singapore is a republic headed by a president and head of government is the prime minister. The currency of Singapore is the Singapore dollar (S $). Is the national anthem of Singapore.
c. Economic activity
Singapore nation’s economic activity mainly on banking services, and industry. In industry produce electronic goods, and groceries. However, due to the limited size of the country which then
to obtain raw materials industry, Singapore imports from other countries, including Indonesia. The type of raw materials are imported from Indonesia, including tin, crude oil and natural gas.

4. Brunei Darussalam

a. Natural conditions
The total area of ​​Brunei approximately 5,765 km2. It is in North Borneo. South, west and east, directly adjacent to Sarawak (East Malaysia state), while the north bordering the South China Sea. Brunei region consists of two: the west and east. The western area is low-lying and marshy areas while the eastern region is a hilly area. Brunei Darussalam has a high mountain that reaches 1,850 meters.
b. Form of government
The capital of Brunei is Bandar Seri Begawan. The shape of the country is the empire. Heads of state and government is Sultan. Currency Brunei Darussalam is Brunei Dollar (Br $). National anthem is a compliment to the Sultan.
c. Economic activity
Brunei Darussalam economic activity, especially in the mining of petroleum and natural gas. Brunei is the biggest oil producer in Asia. Brunei imports from other countries to the needs of other items, such as electronic goods, vehicles, rice, sugar, vegetables and fruits.

5. Philippines

 a. Natural conditions
The total area of around 300,000 km2 Philippines. Like Indonesia, the Philippines is an archipelago. Number of islands about 7,100 islands. Island – The big island of Luzon Island, Mindore Island, Palawan, Cebu, Negros and Mindanao.

Philippine Islands including Pacific Folds Mountains area and has many volcanoes which are still active. The highest mountain on the island of Luzon is the Mayon volcano with 2,421 meters high, while the highest mountain on the island of Mindanao is Mount Apo with an altitude of 1,954 meters. The port city of Cavite The Philippines is located on the island of Luzon.

b. Form of government
The capital of the Philippines is Manila. The shape of the country, namely the Republic with its head of state, led by the President. The head of government is President of the Philippines. Philippine presidential palace Malacanang called contained in the City of Manila. Philippine currency is Peso. National anthem is Tierra Adorada.
c. Economic activity
Philippine population economic activity is in agriculture, mining and industry. Agricultural products consisting of rice, pineapple, and sugar. Results include gold mining, copper, cobalt, nickel, iron ore, and petroleum. In the Philippines in the city of Los Banos International Rice Research Institute found that in English, the agency called the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).

6. Thailand

a. Natural conditions
The area of ​​Thailand approximately 513 998 km2. Thailand consists of plains, hills and mountains. Lowland drained by Chao Phraya River, so it is a very fertile area in Thailand. The highest mountains are in the north and west with the highest peak is Mount Doi Inthanon at 2,594 meters altitude.
b. Form of government
The capital of Thailand is Bangkok, with the shape of the country is a monarchy. Its head of state is the king, while the head of government is the prime minister. Thailand’s currency is Baht. Enough on his song is pleng Chard.
c. Economic activity
Thailand resident economic activity is in agriculture, forestry, mining, and industrial. Thailand is the largest rice producer in Asia, so it is known as the granary of Asia. Mine output of lead and manganese among others. The forest products are teak, while the industry is textiles, cement, and electronic goods.

7. Myanmar

a. Natural conditions
The total area of Myanmar that approximately 676 552 km2. Climate contained in Myanmar Myanmar is divided into two, namely the southern part of the tropical, subtropical climates while the northern part. In the east there is the plateau that separates Myanmar with Thailand.

In the central part of coastal lowland forest fed by the Irrawaddy and some other rivers. In the north is bordered by China and India in the form of mountains (part of the Himalayas). In the southern part there is a coastline along the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal.

b. Form of government
The capital of Myanmar is Yangon. The shape of the country a republic. The head of state and head of government is the president. Myanmar currency is Kyat. Our national anthem is a Free Homeland (Fatherland Merdeka).
c. Economic activity
The livelihood of the people of Myanmar in the fields of agriculture, forestry, plantation, and mining. The main results of the farm Myanmar is rice which is the largest producer in Southeast Asia. The plantation is cotton, tobacco and sugar cane. The forest products are teak, while mine output of gold, silver, zinc, lead, copper, and petroleum.

8. Cambodia

a. Natural conditions
Cambodia is located in the Indochina peninsula. Bordered by Laos in the north, east and south by Vietnam while in the west and north borders with
Thailand. Cambodia’s total area of about 181 300 km2.

Cambodia area through which the Mekong River is a fertile area. There Cardamon mountains along the 160 km which borders Thailand. Cardamon high mountain peak is 1,813 meters. In general, tropical country of Cambodia.

b. Form of government
Cambodia is a republican form of state. The state capital of Cambodia is Phnom Penh. Cambodia’s head of state is the president, while the head of government is the prime minister. Cambodia’s currency is the Cambodian Riel. National anthem is Our Country.
c. Economic activity
The livelihoods of Cambodia’s population, especially in agriculture. Crops are rice, maize, and rubber. Cambodia is also one of the largest rice producer in Southeast Asia.

9. Vietnam

a. Natural conditions
Vietnam country located on the peninsula of Indochina. Its area is about 331 690 km2. The northern side is bordered by China, west of the border with Laos and Cambodia, and the south and east bordering the South China Sea. In Vietnam, there are several mountains and river deltas.
1) In the northwest there is the northern mountains with the highest peak named Fan-Si-Pan with a height of 3,143 meters.
2) the Annamite Mountains that is located in the western region from the mountainous north to 80 km in the northern city of Saigon.
3) Red River Delta stretches from the mountainous north to the Gulf of Tonkin. This area is a fertile area to be used as agricultural area.
4) formed from the Mekong Delta Mekong River.
b. Form of government
Capital country of Vietnam is Hanoi. The shape of the country is a socialist republic with the head of state is the president. The head of government headed by a prime minister. The currency is the Vietnamese Dong. Is the national anthem Tien Quan Ca (Forward Soldier).
c. Economic activity
Vietnam is the nation’s economic activity in agriculture, industry and mining. Livelihoods of Vietnam, especially in agriculture so that the main result is rice. Other agricultural products such as corn, sugar cane, tea, fruits and tobacco. The results of the industry among others
textiles, cement, fertilizers, and tires. While the result is a gold mine, iron ore, coal, lead, zinc, and phosphate. Countries Vietnam is a country with a tropical winter climates.

10. Laos

a. Natural conditions
Laos Indoncina situated on a peninsula, with a total area of ​​about 236 800 km2. Laos winter climates. Laos region generally surrounded by woods and mountains. In the north bordering with China, to the east by Vietnam, south of Thailand and Cambodia, and west borders with Myanmar and Thailand. Laos region north, there are mountains and plateaus stretching along the eastern boundary of the peak is Mount Bia.
Important river in Laos is the Mekong River which flows from the southwest to the southeast to the border of Thailand. The area along the Mekong River was used as an agricultural area. The Mekong River is also used as a means of transportation.
b. Form of government
Capital of Laos is Vientiane to form a republic country. Its head of state is the president, while the head of government is the prime minister. The currency of Laos is the New Kip (KN). Enough on his song is Sat Lao Tang Te Deum Ma’Khan Sulu Sa Nei You Asie.
c. Economic activity
The economic activity of Laotians mainly in the field of agriculture. Crops are rice, vegetables, bananas, papaya, coconut and corn. Besides farming, there is also a cattle business that produces cattle, buffalo, pigs, and poultry.

Fearfully earthquake in Kumamoto Prefekture Territory

Earthquake survival kit – 7.3 magnitude earthquake occurred in Kumamoto Prefecture on Saturday at 01:25 local time on Friday (15/4) at 23.25 pm. Earlier in the same area, namely in Kumamoto Prefecture with the power of 6.4 magnitude on Thursday (14/4) at 21:27 local time or 20:03 pm. TSB large magnitude earthquake devastated the Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan country.

Kyushu island including the four islands known and much visited by tourists, both local and foreign. Prefekture Kumamoto has a population of approximately 2 million inhabitants, which means that as many as 2 million people there are victims of the earthquake TSB.

Not only the loss of life, but property and public facilities were also severely damaged. Houses have been destroyed, buildings collapsed, collapsed bridges, roads and transport links were badly damaged.

Air transport, land, all affected by the quake Dasyhat TSB. Even fast trains transport lines featured ‘Shinkansen’ also severely damaged and some are slipping, although not until the casualties. Shudder when seeing the video that can be seen in how many Japanese newspapers online, the rubble of buildings, and roads collapsed because of the earthquake.

There are about 200 citizens in Kumamoto Prefecture epicenter. About 60 of whom were students and 50 more apprentices. Though the news is still confusing about casualties, but we hope that Indonesian citizens who settled there in the state in good health, some kompasianer living in Japan hopefully be given health and not included in the affected areas.

If watching the news in online media, the people there were running low on food. Perhaps because the badly damaged transport lines and aftershocks that come constantly, resulting in supply aid hiccup.

Several countries have sent aid, such as the country of Taiwan. I had even read, the mayor of Tainan (southern Taiwan) donated a month’s salary to help the earthquake victims in Kumamoto Prefecture.

It TSB do not solely as consideration for Japan often help the country they will be affected if, as some time ago an earthquake struck the country of Taiwan. What about our country, I had no news regarding the assistance to be provided to victims in Kumamoto Prefecture.

But of BNPB claimed to be ready if needed to help the victims of earthquake in the land of cherry TSB (Source: here ) Although not being there, but I can feel the pain they are experiencing, like earthquakes and tsunamis ever to hit our country.

The earthquake in Japan is quite common, when a small earthquake could almost feel each month. Although not too many know the country challenged the Japanese, spent several years of experience there made me a lot to know how they prepare themselves if an earthquake occurs at any time.

And Indonesia are also included which are in the collision zone of three major plates of the world and a number of other microplate. In fact, compared to Japan which is known as one of the countries most vulnerable to earthquakes, the number of earthquakes in Indonesia is higher.

Some of the things that I have learned and become its own experience living in the land of cherry, made me understand why countries are better prepared for earthquakes Japan compared to our country.

Preventing early things we do not want in the event of earthquake, would be better, in addition to minimizing casualties. Doing exercises or simulations of earthquakes, already applied in the land of cherry page.

Not only do in the company, but had been taught since he was a child. In our country also has begun to do if an earthquake simulation, but still limited and Its targets only for a region that is often madly earthquake.

If the company Japan in Indonesia, or earthquake simulation exercises are often done at least twice within a period of one year. Simulation Exercise If Earthquake Occurs When only a few months working in the country of Japan, I obtain lessons on handling simulation in case of an earthquake.

Earthquake can not predict when it happens, by because they were each company in Japan will perform simulations of earthquakes occur at least twice a year. Initially will be explained how the simulation clock will start, if the rallying point of the area during an earthquake is possible to save themselves, but if not emerged from the building then there are things that will be taught also to be safe during earthquakes.

Then there is the division of tasks in the simulation will be, there are parts that save employees by means up out of the emergency exit, saving the company’s assets and help the victims who suffered injuries to call an ambulance for further treatment. All depends on the conditions, if the quake was strongly felt that the main priority was to save ourselves each before helping others.

Practice save themselves and then save others is emphasized in Japan. In fact, since I was in kindergarten, they’ve been introduced to disaster risks.Like so enter primary school, one of the equipment that must be taken students are helmets and protective headgear pillow.

Hiding under the desk or in the Closet If an earthquake happens when we’re in the building, away from the emergency exit, it is suggested not to run out of fear can harm themselves. It could be time to run the fall of material from the top, or tripping because there is rubble from the earthquake.

When the simulation is done also described to avoid things that are not desirable should we seek shelter, such as under desks, in closets or places where we feel safe to take shelter. Initially I did not understand why it should take cover under a desk or in a closet.

Why did not run out, right hazard if the building collapses and eventually bury us alive ‘my mind’, as described new I understand the intent and . Cherry country is famous for its technology, such as the weather forecast that nearly 99% accurate.

What about a hurricane (Taifu), I never felt how the storm hit the area where I live Kakegawa area more precisely in Mori Mori Machi. long before the typhoon came, had no information when a hurricane will hit the area where I live.

The good, in addition to the information given almost every day, it is also very helpful for people to preparing the arrival of a hurricane. Well if an earthquake, to which small forces often I feel, but sometimes there are big namum only occurs a few seconds. Earthquakes almost certain when it comes from, for that is what needs to be done exercises and ways of handling during earthquakes.

Back to the topic, as of this writing, the distribution of aid is still hampered road access conditions that are not easily traversed by a vehicle. Currently they need is clean water, rice and other foods. In addition to the bad weather, aftershocks are still prone to occur, their priorities are not only saving but also personal safety is much more important.

Although they are better prepared for earthquakes, but in conditions like that, certainly there are things beyond the ability of Japan to soon be able to accommodate the needs of the victims of the earthquake disaster.

Certainly very assistance to ease the burden on the people there, we were not able to provide assistance in the form of matter, can give the Benediction and support to keep them strong to face the disaster that is happening. The earthquake can not be predicted when it would happen, but at least it can make us better guard against, considering that Indonesia also frequent earthquakes and relatively high compared with the country of Japan.

Mount Agung and Kelud volcano Login Most Dangerous

The volcanologist call Mount Suribachi on the island of Iwo Jima, Japan , as the most dangerous volcanoes in the world.

Experts from the University of Manchester said, the devastating eruption of the famous mountain since World War II it was a matter of time.

Earthquake preparedness kit – If the eruption Suribachi happens then expected to generate a massive tsunami with waves as high as 25 meters sea that could destroy the southern region of Japan and the coastal cities of China , including Shanghai and Hong Kong .

Mount Suribachi be pemuncak 10 most dangerous volcanoes in the world that is likely erupted explosively over the next 100 years and could result in at least 1 million people were killed.

Another mountain that included this list is Mount Campi Flegrei near Naples, Italy. If the mountain is erupting, the impact is much more powerful than Vesuvius that destroyed Pompeii 2000 years ago.

Although very rare eruption, but Mount Campi Flegrei is located very close to the city of Naples are inhabited by 4.4 million people so the threat is very real mountain.

“In many places in the world, oversight of the volcano is very poor and many of the less monitored volcano that is located close to densely populated areas,” said volcanologist, Professor Albert Zijlstra.

Since Mount Tambora erupted in 1815, said Zijlstra, has never been a more powerful eruption.

When Tambora erupted 200 years ago, the impact of the volcanic eruption made the world as if without a summer.

“In this century, there is a chance one will sedahsyat Tambora eruption,” he added.

Back to Mount Suribachi, the experts believe that the eruption is able to match the awesomeness of eruption of Tambora on Sumbawa Island, which is capable of causing significant climate change.

High Mount Suribachi is now 20 meters higher than it was in 1945 when US Marines raising the flag at the top of the mountain.

The growth of a magma chamber is believed to be the main factor that adds to the heights of Mount Suribachi.

In addition, the height of Iwo Jima Island coast also increases. Now, the island’s land surface as high as 17 meters above sea level.

That is, the island was taller one meter every four years during the last few hundred years.

If the eruption Suribachi happens then a tsunami with 25 meter water wall will be created. This tsunami can destroy the southern region of Japan and a number of coastal cities of China .

Suribachi eruption will equal the eruption of Mount Kuwae in Vanuatu in 1458 which resulted in a tsunami as high as 30 meters to the north of New Zealand and the resulting extinction in Polynesian culture.

Meanwhile, as one of the countries with the highest volcano in the world, Indonesia “donate” two volcano in this list. Both mountain is Mount Agung in Bali and Mount Kelud in East Java .

Here are the 10 most dangerous volcanoes in the world:

1. Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, Japan

2. Mount Chilpete / Apoyeque, Nicaragua

3. Mount Campi Flagrei, Italy

4. Mount Aso, Japan

5. Belt Volcano Trans Mexican

6. Mount Agung, Bali , Indonesia

7. Mount Cameroon

8. Mount Taal, near Manila, Philippines

9. Mount Mayon, Philippines

10. Mount Kelud, Indonesia

Mobile communications and earthquakes: wedding very “disturbing”

Is an expert in the aftermath of the earthquake consequences in every corner of the world and has been reported in every major earthquakes during the last 12 months. As we were to follow the event from minute to minute (and reports about them on this site), we begin to get a clear picture of what is wrong . The communication problem is one of the main problems back and we are confident that they can be avoided, best earthquake kit

Except that the earthquake itself may damage the entire world, a major earthquake today has certainly apply the same principal :

Major mobile connectivity problems when earthquakes strike

Result 1 : people can not reach each other and are very concerned about their family members and friends in other locations.
Outcome 2 : All communications (data, voice and text) are removed , including the most used by emergency services
Result 3 : people who rushed to their cars to go home (during office hours), to schools, etc. and create a chaotic traffic (even more chaotic when some roads are blocked by cracks, debris, etc.)

Overcoming the saturated mobile network

Especially earthquakes in or near major cities such as Vancouver, Tokyo, Christchurch, New Delhi, Istanbul, Santiago de Chile, etc are very dangerous for communication eliminated.
Lines can be eliminated by saturation or by technical failure .
We must look to both the reasons to find (easy, fast and inexpensive) solutions.

If an earthquake produces only minor damage, the line generally return to normal within seconds to minutes as people will calm down and continue what they are doing.
If someone, however, heard of people were injured, the destruction and loss of life, he will not stop until contact with their loved ones. This is perfectly normal human behavior .

Can we prepare people how to handle their phones after the earthquake?
The answer is NO
Why: almost everyone will think that his family or friends is the highest value in the earth and doing good “priority” service.
Teaching and preparing people what to do in the cities with a population of several hundred thousand, the UTOPIA .

Can the authorities and the Network manage the behavior after the earthquake ?
The answer is YES NIH
How? : In follow some strict rules “scenarios” such as:
a) with cut / VOICE limit communication by an earthquake alert level to high magnitude and limiting bandwidth for medium-sized earthquake. In the case of a partial outage for the service, everyone on the network can receive text messages such as ” Text messages are only allowed until further notice because of the earthquake “.
The automatic cuts trigger level and the appropriate message will be given in collaboration with seismologists / geologist based on estimates of their MMI (mainly based on historical data).
A technique called ” Your broadcasting ” Enabling a text message that will be sent to all mobile phones in the area specified in seconds!
b) by ordering the full bandwidth for a text message
c) block all internet data graphics (Picture / ad / video) traffic for Internet data – text requires only a fraction of the bandwidth capabilities of data
d) by ordering enough bandwidth for voice and data for authorities and rescue services of all kinds .
If the automatic trigger will not be accepted, a similar system can be triggered manually by organizations such as FEMA (USA) , ONEMI (Chile), etc.
The discomfort some would give comfort to everyone.

On a technical failure

During the first year of reporting we have seen some remarkable findings such as:
– A rather small earthquake in Peru makes it almost impossible because of a power outage mobile connectivity .
– In September 2010 the Christchurch earthquake damage revealed an amazing connectivity and outstanding. As long as so many other earthquakes, power is immediately cut off, but because the battery that keeps the beacon Mobile (overloaded) to do the job .

The simple solution to overcome technical failure:
– the batteries that guarantee communications for at least 2 hours should be mandatory for each pole mobile and station / substation
– Construction standards for stations and poles must be able to withstand the earthquake of 1-in-1000 , depending on the region / country. namely to build them with the same standards as other life paths such as hospitals – are required to have a minimum given the massive earthquake damage.

That’s the cost of all these measures is minimal compared with the chaos that will come with the tragic earthquake .
Authorities should impose all the action . The result will be surprising.
Technical wonders of today must be used up to maintain a well-organized society, able to handle a major earthquake.

Examples of the earthquake in which mobile networks down because one of the two mentioned reasons
August 23, 2011: Virginia earthquake – Asgottabemobilereport, it wreaked havoc on the cell network from Verizon, Sprint, T-Mobile and AT & T. No one the company appears to be immune cells from a huge explosion of traffic phones.

Climate Change and Deforestation Causes Landslides in Java

The global climate change and deforestation is thought to be the cause, two successive landslide disaster that befell Jember, East Java and Banjarnegara, Central Java , causing casualties are not few in number.

The statement disclosed by the Deputy Ministry of Environment of Development of Technical Support and Capacity Building, Isa Karmisa in Jakarta, Thursday.

“The case of landslides in Jember and Banjarnegara is different, if in Jember expected due to climate change then in Banjarnegara if not wrong because of deforestation,” he said.

According to him, for the Jember region still looks good land cover from satellite pictures where it means the condition of forests in Jember still pretty good.

Click here: facts of what causes earthquakes

Hasil gambar untuk Perubahan Iklim dan Penggundulan Hutan Penyebab Tanah Longsor di Jawa
“Therefore I expect the case in Jember occur due to the impact of global climate change,” he said.

He said the damage to the environment in the world mainly due to two things: the global climate change due to share things like deforestation and pollution and destruction of the ozone layer.

“The meeting of the Minister of the Environment of the world at the North Pole on global warming phenomenon noted that the earth’s temperature has increased about 2 degrees Celsius to 3 degrees Celsius. As a result, the frost there is melting and forming is kind of a dam that burst the water level can rise up to 7 meters , “he said.

That is, countries with good potential of forests were actually expected to maintain their forests to stem the effects of global warming.

Furthermore, he said, the impact of climate change is causing the events shifted from the condition properly.

“Just imagine, Hurricane Katrina which formerly always occurs in the sea suddenly appeared on land and in thousands of casualties,” he said.

Catastrophic events flash floods and landslides in Kemiri, Kecamatan Panti, Jember allegedly occurred not as a result of deforestation, but because of the high flow of water in the region Argopuro –atas–, so the small lake-lake that existed around the area –cekungan- – are not able to accommodate the flow of water from heavy rainfall –115 ml / dt–.

Therefore, in the mountainous region Argopuro need to be reconstructed plant, be perennials, so it has a high absorption capacity and is able to hold water in case of heavy rainfall. Coffee plant that exists today has been duly replaced the rubber or the identity of the economically valued high enough.

Semenatara it regarding similar events that occurred in the hamlet Gunungraja, Sijeruk Village, District Banjarmangun, Banjarnegara, Wednesday (4/1) at around 05:00 pm, Isa has not been able to say much.

“I heard about the possibility of deforestation there but needs to be studied further,” he said.

But, he added, MOE will continue to strive to minimize environmental damage. Even so, according to Jesus, two areas in Jember and Banjarnegara are not included in disaster-prone areas in the report on the status of the environment in 2004 published KLH in 2005.

When asked further whether forest environmental monitoring will be becoming one of the tasks of Civil Servant Investigators (investigators) KLH, Isa said there was an element of the environment during the investigators will move.

Related to the accident was the Environment Minister Rachmat Witoelar is reportedly reviewing the affected areas today (Thursday – ed).

Threatens Java

Meanwhile Environmental Forum (WALHI) said that, flood casualties and material loss is large enough in Jember is the fact umpteenth reminder that Java is in critical condition and prone to disaster.

With an area of 13 million hectares, Java Island only has 1.9 million hectares of forest cover in the various provinces so that with such conditions, practically Java become the island with the disaster vulnerability level is high enough.

According to Executive Director of WALHI, Chalid Muhammad, flash floods just one indicator of damage to forest areas so it is possible that other disasters will come to Java and become “menu annual” Java community.

WALHI judge, flood in Jember it is inseparable from the allotment inconsistencies in the upstream region so that the effect on the area underneath.

“Governments tend to practice nullifying the areas that have hydro-orologis,” he said.

Keputran region, for example, with slopes over 40 degrees should not be reserved for cultivation area, but the area that was the center for coffee. Similarly, the region Besuki and Rembangan with exceptional forest openings so that the effect on the functioning of hydro-orologis forest.

Java, according to Chalid, basically have reached the saturation point. With a population that is increasingly dense has spurred the conversion is done blindly and put Java as an area with potential for disaster is high.

“It is time the government is committed and real action to save Java. All you can begin by correcting the policy of natural resource management space is fundamental.

The types and terms Earthquake Earthquake

What causes earthquakes facts – We often hear quake but very rarely we see there are several kinds of earthquakes we have experienced. All of the quake did cause the phenomenon in the form of wobble. But not all of wobble caused by the same thing.

“Oh cool, Pakdhe has begun to theorize, not only tells phenomenon”

“While not much of the natural phenomena theory yes we first Thole story”

In theory there is some kind of earthquake views of how to classify it. Can be seen from the genesis of earthquake occurrence, the magnitude of its power, can also be seen from the phenomenon.

Classification of earthquake genesis

There are five (5) types of earthquakes that can be distinguished by the occurrence, namely:

  1. Tectonic earthquake;
  2. Volcanic Earthquake;
  3. Earthquake Ruins;
  4. Earthquake fallout;
  5. Artificial Earthquake
  6. Now we see the one simple huh?

 Tectonic earthquake

Kaan tectonic already know? Yes the movement of the plates or crust. Etc. Each layer has a hardness and density of which differ from one another. The earth’s crust has shifted as a result of convection currents that occur in the earth. Because the friction between these plates causes earthquakes, this most often occurs during this time.

This tentusaja need to be explained further, because this earthquake pasling common and is one of the most destructive earthquakes assessed.

Volcanic Earthquake

As its name suggests volcanic earthquakes or volcanic earthquake is the earthquake caused by movement or activity of magma inside the volcano. This earthquake can occur before and during volcanic eruptions. Vibrations can sometimes be perceived by humans and animals around the volcano is located. Estimates volcanic eruption is marked by frequent occurrence of volcanic earthquake vibrations.

Earthquake Ruins

Earthquake debris or Terban an earthquake that happened because the soil or rock debris. Its slopes or steep coast has great potential energy to collapse, also occurred in the area due to the collapse of the mine or tunnel wall in the underground mines that can cause vibrations in the vicinity of the ruins, but the impact is not so dangerous. Quite the harmful effects are due to deposition of rocks or landslide itself.

Imagine if a large rock slide as explained here : Looking at the types of avalanches with video View large rock falls genius even this will cause vibrations strong enough. Even-swara swara glung-borax in the south of Yogyakarta been rumored due to the collapse of underground caverns. Please read here Vibration Terri: Crawls, volcanic or tectonic?

The quake fallout

Earth is one of the planets in the solar system composition. In our solar system there are thousands of meteors or rock-strewn earth orbit. At any time of the meteor crashed into the earth’s atmosphere and sometimes up to the earth’s surface. Meteors are falling this will cause vibration of the earth if the mass meteor large enough. These vibrations called seismic fall-out, but this rarely happens earthquake. crater located near Flagstaff, Arizona, along 1.13 km due to the fall of the meteorite, 50,000 years ago with a diameter of 50 m.

Well alleged large meteor impact in Indonesia has also been at here: Hunting Meteor Crater (Geo-Circle) in Indonesia

Artificial Earthquake

An underground nuclear test explosions or sea can cause vibration of the earth that can be recorded by seismographs all over the surface of the earth depends on the force of the blast, while a blast of dynamite beneath the earth’s surface can also cause vibration but the vibration is very local effect.

One of the benefits of artificial earthquake vibrations are in oil exploration with a technique called seismic exploration.

So even during oscillation and vibration is always considered to be damaging, but if people are able to think that this is precisely the vibration can be used to study the Earth itself. theory yes like a doctor who listened to the vibrations that exist in the stomach.

Well above the types of earthquake seen from the genesis of the occurrence or formation.

Kalisifikasi magnitude of an earthquake,

Based on the strength or magnitude (M), distinguishes USGS earthquake can be distinguished:

  • 0.0-3.0: micro earthquake
  • 3.0-3.9: minor earthquake
  • 4.0-4.9: minor earthquake
  • 5.0-5.9: moderate earthquake
  • 6.0-6.9: strong quake
  • 7.0-7.9: major earthquake
  • 8.0 and greater: a very strong earthquake

Based on the depth of the epicenter

Based on the depth (h), the earthquake was listed above:

Shallow earthquakes between 0 and 70 km deep; intermediate earthquake, 70-300 km deep, and earthquakes in, 300-700 km deep. In general, the term epicenter in ( deep-focus Earthquakes ) is used to earthquakes, its more than 70 km. All the earthquakes deeper than 70 km are common in the Earth’s mantle, not only in only.

Remember the Earth’s crust has a depth of only about 60 Km away.

Other terms in quake

  • Foreshocks
    is vibration or earthquakes smaller happened before the big earthquake.
  • Main shock
    main quake that an earthquake is often reported when they occur.
  • Aftershocks
    This earthquake is known as aftershocks. The main earthquake (Main shock) who has the power over 6M usually have aftershocks.
  • Earthquake Swarm
    stand of the earthquake are earthquakes that occur at a particular location. Often associated with volcanism.
  • Primary and Secondary Quake
    Quake is a primary coming earthquake shakes first because these vibrations have the greatest velocity. While the secondary earthquake is a wobble or vibration that comes afterwards because it has a lower velocity.

With the proper classification we will know how the character of each of these earthquakes.

Well how about the kinds of earthquakes are scattered in Indonesia? Wait for the next myth.